ZNR 44 (2022) Heft 1/2

Nachruf

  • Diethelm Klippel (1943–2022), S. 1

Beiträge

  • MARTIN HEUSER, Regensburg
    Die Rezeption des naturrechtlichen Zurechnungsbegriffs durch die gemeinrechtliche Strafrechtswissenschaft – insbesondere zur Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1731 – 1759), in:  ZNR 44 (2021), S. 2–29

This article serves as an overview on the historical development of the notion of imputation (Zurechnung) used in criminal law during the 18th century, especially in the middle of this period. It therefore analyses the scholarly reception and takeover of this fundamental term from the scientific systems of natural law established since the 17th century. The first systematic approach in this scholarly reception can be found in D.H. Kemmerich’s “Synopsis Juris Criminalis”, published in 1731. Particularly in the middle of the 18th century the concept of imputation was integrated into the criminal law notion of crime and felony. However, the scholarly reception of the term of imputation was made in a still yet deficient way, notably the one of the latin term “imputatio facti”. That’s why in the end of the 18th century the scientifical need for a revision of the basic principles and terms of criminal law came up.

  • FABIENNE UJI-HOFER, Osaka
    Die deutsche Rechtswissenschaft als Referenz der japanischen Kolonialherrschaft auf Taiwan: Die „Untersuchungen der alten Bräuche“ unter der Leitung von Okamatsu Santarô, in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 30–46

Many aspects of German-Japanese relations have been extensively studied, especially the German Empire’s role in the field of law during the late 19th and early 20th century. The impact of German legal studies on Japanese colonial policy, however, has yet to be thoroughly analyzed. As for Japan’s first colony Taiwan (1895–1945), historian Mark Peattie had pointed out the importance of the German Empire on Japanese colonial rule in 1984. Furthermore, recent studies on the “investigations of old customs in Taiwan” (1902–1919), a large-scale project conducted by the Government-General to decide on the legislation to implement on its Taiwanese subjects, have revealed that the attorney and supervisor of the
legal investigations, Okamatsu Santarô, was heavily influenced by German legal experts and their theories. Despite these indications Japanese colonial rule is still regarded as construct of English and French colonial policy. Based on Okamatsu’s writings and the result of previous research, this article aims to show which aspects of the investigations were influenced by German law and by which German legal scholars, in particular. This article therefore intends to shed new light on German-Japanese relations, and to provide a new perspective on Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan.

  • SIMA SAMARI, Tübingen
    Schuld und Krise – Die richterliche Vertragshilfe als Mittel zur Bewältigung „großer“ Grundlagenstörungen, in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 47–67

The corona crisis has posed challenges for society, economy, and law. In its decision of January 12, 2022, the Federal Court of Justice (BGH) classifies the effects of the pandemic as a shock to social existence and thus as a “great” frustration of contract (Störung der „großen“ Geschäftsgrundlage). An event comparable to the corona crisis occurred in Germany with the outbreak of the Second World War. At that time, however, the legislature reacted by creating the so-called judicial assistance in contractual matters (richterliche Vertragshilfe) instead of resorting to the doctrine of frustration of contract (Lehre von der Geschäftsgrundlage). This raises the question of whether this doctrine, which has now been codified in § 313 BGB, is at all suitable for dealing with the consequences of crises affecting the society as a whole. This article approaches this question from a historical point of view by examining the judicial assistance in contractual matters as an instrument of overcoming such crises.

  • SASCHA OHLENFORST, Aachen
    Vom Sinn und Nutzen der Umweltrechtsgeschichte. Methodische Überlegungen auf Grundlage der Interessen- und Wertungsjurisprudenz, in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 68–98

How to write a history of environmental law that can be integrated into environmental and  legal history? What insights can be gained from dealing with past environmental law? The article discusses and problematizes essential questions of modern legal history and, on the basis of the jurisprudence of interests and values – especially with reference to Rudolf von Jhering –, promotes a possible new orientation of the history of environmental law. Such a method considers above all the different interests of historical actors and reference groups as a major factor of dynamization in environmental law. Examining these
interests as social factors not only contributes to a deeper understanding of the particular human-environmental relations in the past, but also provides a detailed insight into the development of law. By consulting a case study on mining law, both the dynamizing factors as well as the continuities and disruptions between past and present law are illustrated.

  • SIEGMAR LENGAUER, Linz
    Historische Entwicklungslinien hin zum geltenden österreichischen Recht zur Unterbringung psychisch kranker Rechtsbrecher, in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 99–117

A liberal legal system is founded on the principle, that every individual is to be treated as a person, i.e. a legal subject. Within the field of criminal law this principle is associated with personal responsibility in regard to an act in the past. Preventive measures do however not refer to personal responsibility, i.e. guilt. They form a second lane within the modern criminal law, dedicated to the safety of the general public. Therefore, they pose the question, whether a certain degree of objectification of a particular group of offenders is acceptable, in order to generate more safety. To answer this question a historic context has to be considered, as preventive measures have played an important role in the oppression and annihilation of certain parts of society in the midst of the 20th century. Illiberal thought patterns regarding such measures might still be influential within modern criminal law. Hence, they have to be scrutinized, as it is impermissible to treat a person as a mere cause of danger.

Länderbericht

  • NINA KRŠLJANIN, Belgrade

Legal Historiography in Serbia (2007–2022), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 118–140

Literatur

  • Hermann-Josef Blanke – Magiera Siegfried – Pielow Johann Christian – Albrecht Weber (Hrsg), Verfassungsentwicklungen im Vergleich (Martin P. Schennach), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 141–142
  • Wolfgang Bohnen – Lena Haase (Hrsg), Kontrolle, Konflikt und Kooperation (Peter Collin), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 142–143
  • Michael Erpelding – Burkhard Hess – Hélene Ruiz Fabri (Hrsg), Peace through Law (Miriam Gassner), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 144–145
  • A. M. Godrey – C. H. van Rhee (Hrsg), Central Courts in Early modern Europe and the Americas (Anette Baumann), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 145–147
  • Clara Günzl, Eine andere Geschichte der Begründungspflicht (Philipp Semmelmayer), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 147–150
  • Michael Hochedlinger – Petr Mat‘a – Thomas Winkelbauer (Hrsg), Verwaltungsgeschichte der Habsburgermonarchie in der frühen Neuzeit (Gerhard Kohl), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 150–157
  • Alfonso C. Hophan, Die Verfassungsrevolution an der Glarner Landsgemeinde von 1836 (Numa Graa), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 158–159
  • Thomas Olechowski, Hans Kelsen (Stephan Hinghofer-Szalkay), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 159–163
  • Ulrich Pfister – Jan-Otmar Hesse – Mark Spoerer – Nikolaus Wolf, Deutschland 1871 (Franz Hederer), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 163–166
  • Philippe Rygiel, L’ordre des circulations? (Miriam Gassner), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 166–167
  • Jan Schröder, Recht als Wissenschaft (Christian Baldus), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 167–172
  • Karl W. Schwarz, Der österreichische Protestantismus im Spiegel seiner Rechtsgeschichte (Astrid von Schlachta), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 172–175
  • Anna Theresa Struck-Berghäuser, Franz von Liszt und seine Gegner (Martin P. Schennach), in: ZNR 44 (2022), S. 175–176