- BERND MERTENS, Erlangen-Nürnberg
Kodifikation, Dekodifikation, Rekodifikation, in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 1–29
The inflationary use of the term “codification” does not meet its proper meaning, which is associated with a specific legislative concept stemming from the Age of Enlightenment. In the course of legislative history, the codification concept proved to be capable of change and advantageous for modern science-based legal systems. Countervailing tendencies (“decodification”) are not a new phenomenon and in the long run could not detract from the attractiveness of the codification model in numerous countries (“recodification”). The alleged outdatedness of the codification model stems from exaggerated demands that are not convincing neither from a historical nor a contemporary perspective. The actual advantages of a codification-based civil law system are thus easily lost sight of. Legislation, jurisprudence and judicature are not opponents in this concept, but complement each other to the advantage of the overall legal order.
- CHRISTIAN ALUNARU, Arad
Zur Entwicklung des Handelsrechts in Rumänien, in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 30–35
More than a century the Romanian commercial law was regulated by the commercial code of 1887. Even though it followed the example of the Italian Codice di commercio of 1882, a German influence is also noticeable because the Italian law code processed not only the yield of the French but also of the German legal theory and legal practice. As Great Romania arose through the union of different provinces in 1918 which belonged to different countries, bringing their own legal systems, a collision of laws n emerged that had to be solved through a new commercial code. This failed due to the outbreak of the Second World War and King Charles II‘s abdication, the spiritual father of the project. During the communist era the commercial code was not abrogated, it was applied only to the legal relations of the foreign trade. In the domestic trade it was the socialist economic law that counted. Through the enactment of the new Romanian civil code on 1st October 2011 which followed the monistic view, the commercial code of 1887 was abrogated.
- LOUIS PAHLOW, Frankfurt/Main
Wettbewerb um Innovationen statt Harmonisierung des Rechts. Zum Patentrecht im Deutschen Bund, in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 36–51
In the history of patent law, the German Confederation (“Deutscher Bund”) has so far played an ambivalent role. In 1842 and 1863, the German Confederation adopted regulations to standardize the protection of inventions within the “Zollverein“. However, patent law was not provided with a legally harmonizing codification as, for example, in the field of commercial law with the ADHGB. The following article attempts to bring the legal differences in the protection of inventions in the various states more into focus, taking into account patent practices as well. From this perspective, the absence of a uniform patent law in the German Confederation can also be explained as a case of competition between states, which impeded uniform regulations and thus coordinated granting practices.
- WILHELM BRAUNEDER, Wien/Budapest
Der „Umbruch“ Österreichs 1918/19 in der neuesten Geschichtsschreibung, oder: Wenn es an der Verfassungsgeschichte mangelt, in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 52–64
The anniversary 1918/18–2018/19 motivated quite a number of historians and also some legal historians to reflect on Austria’s history around the end of World War I. Most of them, however, neglected the development of constitutional law, although constitutional changes played an outstanding role in this so called „Umbruch“ (upheaval).
- KONRAD GRACZYK, Kattowitz
In einem Gewissenskonflikt … Beihilfe zur Fahnenflucht in der Rechtsprechung des Sondergerichts Kattowitz, in: ZNR 43 (2021), S.65–83
The present article deals with aiding and abetting desertion from the German Wehrmacht and is based on insights from the examination of twenty-four criminal cases heard by the “Sondergericht” at Kattowitz. The relevance of this topic arises from the fact that aiding and abetting desertion has almost never been addressed in historical research (only two other “Sondergerichte” of the Third Reich have been studied in this regard). The article begins with a discussion of the conscription of soldiers from Upper Silesia into the Wehrmacht during the Second World War. Then the crimes of desertion and aiding and abetting desertion as well as the legal grounds for their prosecution are described. The main part of the article deals with the results of the archival research. Individual criminal cases and offenders are characterised with reference to the factual and legal bases of the convictions, the types and severity of the sentences, as well as the fate of the deserters. The research demonstrates, for example, that in most cases of assisted desertion, help was provided by women who were close to the deserter or otherwise acquainted with him.
- BERNHARD KÖNIG, Innsbruck
Das Stickereigericht in Dornbirn – ein Vorarlberger Unikum der Zivilgerichtsbarkeit, in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 84–91
Special civil courts were (and still are) very rare in Austria. Nevertheless in 1925 the “Fachgericht für die Maschinenstickereiindustrie” was established as a special court for lawsuits between entrepreneurs in a specific branch of a small industry – the embroidery industry – in and for the western province Vorarlberg of Austria. Similar to labour courts but well distinguished, the bench of this special civil court was formed by professional judges as well as by representatives of the professions of the parties involved: the industrial distributor, the agent (the so called “Fergger”) and the mostly family-based embroiderer (the so called “Lohnsticker”). The official motivation for establishing this “Fachgericht” was – as such doubtful enough – the slogan that experts on the bench could guarantee a quick and cheap solution of conflicts. This special court, presumably a result of lobby-pressure and political weakness of the legislator (in front of a province that tried to leave Austria after World War I and to join Switzerland), was never very successful. After many years of factual inactivity due to the decline of the “Lohnstickerei” almost at the same time as the introduction of the “Fachgericht” in 1925 it was abolished 1958 without “much ado”.
- CHRISTIAN BALDUS, Heidelberg
Wer braucht die Meistererzählungen? Eine rechtsromanistische Perspektive, in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 92–118
What is a master narrative? Answers to this question might differ for the individual branches of Legal History. Within the study of Roman Law, a certain scepticism seems to prevail regarding the use of theoretical narratives and models, although for teaching purposes they are practically impossible to avoid. The reason for this is perhaps the overly stringent methodology of certain Romanist narratives, which caused serious issues throughout the twentieth century. German-language debates today show a more pluralist approach; even complex scientific projects tend to avoid explicit narratives. New narratives, if ever, are to be found in Italy (albeit rooted in older international debates), viz the identification of single jurists’ “intellectual profiles”. The Italian approach towards Roman Law and the academic milieu seem to be more favourable to master narratives; given the international impact of Italian works, German-speaking scholars cannot avoid reflecting on these influences. For instance, the controversial use of the term “classical Roman law” mirrors these differences: calling some rules or individuals “classical” could, for example, be perceived as adopting an outdated understanding of Roman lawyers as “fungible”. Such a perspective, however, is not the only one possible. If Legal History is a part of Legal Science – which utilises its own definition –, it may opt consciously for using the term. Nevertheless, the meaning of the label “classical” lies in the eye of the beholder.
- MORITZ VORMBAUM, Münster
Strafrecht in Diktaturen in: ZNR 43 (2021), S.119–132
- Benjamin Bukor, Abstammung – Ideologie – Recht (Raphaela Etzold), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 133–137
- Clemens Bogedain, Die Entwicklung von Rücktritts- und Rückrufrechten wegen Nichtausübung, veränderter Umstände und gewandelter Überzeugung im Urheber- und Verlagsrecht (Louis Pahlow), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 137–138
- Josef Bongartz, Gericht und Verfahren in der Stadt und im Hochstift Würzburg (Hans-Wolfgang Bergerhausen), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 138–140
- Michael Buchner, Spielregeln der Börse (H. Catherine Davies), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 140–142
- Sabino Cassese – Armin von Bogdandy – Peter Huber (Hrsg), The Administrative State (Christian Neschwara), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 142–143
- Horst Dreier, Kirche ohne König. Das Ende des landesherrlichen Kirchenregiments („Bündnis von Thron und Altar“) 1918/19 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung Preußens und Württembergs (Renate Penßel), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 143–147
- Hans Petter Graver, Der Krieg der Richter (Derk Venema), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 147–151
- Stephan Meder, Der unbekannte Leibniz (Peter König), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 151–155
- Bernd Mertens, Gönner, Feuerbach, Savigny (Hans-Georg Hermann), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 155–157
- Dietmar Müller, Bodeneigentum und Nation (Martin Löhnig), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 157–158
- Katharina Pabel – Markus Vašek (Hrsg), Menschenrechte 1948/1958 (Andreas Th. Müller), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 158–160
- Veit Petzoldt, Staatstragende Kriminalbiologie (Franziska Niedrist), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 160–163
- Nadine Reinhold, Die Entwicklung des Urheberrechts unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der höchstrichterlichen Rechtsprechung von 1870 bis 1910 (Louis Pahlow), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 163–165
- Martin P. Schennach, Austria inventa? (Thomas Simon), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 165–169
- Philipp Siegert, Staatshaftung im Ausnahmezustand (Anna Karla), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 169–171
- Johannes Volker Späth, Aspekte des Lauterkeitsrechts zur Zeit des Nationalsozialismus (Franz Hederer), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 171–173
- Oscar Szerkus, Die Sondergerichtsbarkeit des polnischen Untergrundstaates (Andrzej Wrzyszcz), in: ZNR 43 (2021), S. 173–179